Allergic Rhinitis diagnosis and treatment
Allergy: Allergic rhinitis can be treated at home if the symptoms are minimal.
Itching, sneezing, nasal congestion, and runny nose are all signs of allergic rhinitis. Allergies cause inflammation in the nose, which results in these symptoms.
In most cases, the main goal of treating this problem is to get rid of these symptoms. You can typically address your symptoms on your own if they are not severe. However, a doctor should be sought if the at-home remedy is unsuccessful or if the symptoms worsen and disrupt daily living.
Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis
Common cold symptoms and those of allergic rhinitis are very similar.
- Itching sensation inside the nose
- Runny nose, stuffy nose or runny nose.
Typically, these signs and symptoms appear soon after coming into contact with the allergen.
Most people have little symptoms and quickly recover with good care. However, some people may experience severe symptoms that persist for years, making daily life challenging and problematic. instance: having a hard time falling asleep.
Each person's symptom duration may be different. For instance, some persons experience seasonal allergic rhinitis because they are allergic to grass and plant pollens that are present throughout certain seasons. Others endure hardship virtually all year long.
Causes of allergic rhinitis
Allergies to several things lead to allergic rhinitis. Our bodies release a substance called histamine in reaction to allergies.
The nasal lining becomes inflamed as a result of histamine. The nose then produces a significant volume of a slippery fluid that resembles mucus. Then sneezing and a runny nose are among the symptoms of allergic rhinitis that start to show.
Different things cause allergies in different people. Genetics raises the likelihood that other family members will experience allergies if one member of the family already has them.
Common allergens include—
- Dust mite
- pollen molecule
- Domesticated animals and birds
- Various allergens are present in the workplace environment. For example –
- wood powder
- Flour and baking powder
- Latex or special rubber gloves
A sort of microscopic bug is a dust mite. To the unaided eye, they are invisible. It appears to be a white eight-legged insect under the microscope. Dust mites eat the dead skin cells that daily fall onto our beds, carpets, and sofas in order to survive.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis:
If the symptoms of allergic rhinitis are minor, it is possible to cure it at home. The aim of treatment in this instance is to reduce sneezing, runny nose, and nasal congestion symptoms.
Home Remedies for Allergic Rhinitis:
Home treatments for allergic rhinitis include:
eliminating allergens. In the section below on prevention, this is covered in more detail.
taking antihistamines without sleepiness. such as Loratadine and Cetirizine. They combat the histamine that the body produces in reaction to allergies.
It should be noted that each person responds best to a different sort of antihistamine. So you may need to test several types of antihistamines before finding the one that works best for you.
Nasal cleansing with nasal drops comprising saline or 0.9% sodium chloride. Pharmacies sell them under a variety of trade names, including Salo, Saloride ED, N-Sol, and Hapisol. They aid in the removal of nasal allergens.
There are three situations where a doctor should be contacted:
- If natural cures don't work
- In case of severe symptoms
- if persistent symptoms make it difficult to live normally. For instance: inability to sleep or disturbance of everyday activities
Medicines for allergic rhinitis
Medication may help with common allergic rhinitis symptoms. However, allergies are not totally reversible.
You can take medication for a set amount of time if your allergy problem occurs during a change in seasons. There is no need to take any more medication once the symptoms have subsided. There are several effective treatments for allergic rhinitis.
Pharmacies sell antihistamines in the form of tablets, sprays, drops, syrups, and creams.
Antihistamine tablets can typically be purchased without a prescription from a physician. However, a doctor should be consulted before using these medications if you have kidney or liver issues, are experiencing convulsions, are a convulsion patient, or are under the age of two.
Keep in mind that certain antihistamines have undesirable side effects, like sleepiness. As a result, the medication shouldn't be used before operating machinery or driving a vehicle. To reduce risk, take medication before bedtime.
Compared to tablets or syrups, antihistamine nasal sprays operate more quickly. They work better in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. But you shouldn't use these sprays without a doctor's prescription.
For the treatment of allergic rhinitis, corticosteroids or steroid nasal drops or sprays may occasionally be advised. For instance -
By easing nasal inflammation, this medication aids in symptom relief. Their effects endure longer than those of antihistamines while taking longer to take action.
To treat severe symptoms, the doctor may occasionally recommend steroid medications for 5–10 days.
Steroid nasal spray and drop users seldom experience any side effects. However, occasionally, adverse symptoms including bleeding, a dry nose, or internal nose burning might happen.
Never take steroid medications without consulting a doctor. Taking steroids often or in large amounts can have a number of negative side effects. Therefore, avoid purchasing these medications from a drugstore or the internet on your own.
Keep in mind that the doctor may increase the dosage of the steroid spray or drops if the aforementioned remedies do not work. In addition, the patient can receive recommendations to combine or take other medicine types.
In this method of treatment, the patient is gradually used to the allergenic substance. It doesn't make the body experience allergic reactions. There is a chance that this technique will cause serious allergic reactions. Consequently, a trained doctor oversees the treatment as it is administered.
Immunotherapy is not widely used. Only when specific types of allergies become severe are they treated with this method. For instance, hay fever or a pollen allergy. In Bangladesh, this type of treatment is not particularly frequent.
Prevention of allergic rhinitis
Avoiding things that cause or may cause allergies is the most effective strategy to prevent allergic rhinitis.
It can be challenging to totally avoid allergens. As a result, it may be challenging to determine whether a home is dust-mite-free. because they are contagious even in extremely clean homes. It is also common to avoid interaction with family members or pets if you own them.
To reduce exposure to allergens, though, a number of measures can be taken. These will be highly successful in easing allergic rhinitis symptoms. The following are some practical suggestions for avoiding common allergens:
One of the main causes of allergy responses is dust mites. In the house, they reproduce in the dust. They can't be seen with the naked eye since they are so tiny. As a result, it is challenging to pinpoint.
Follow these tips to prevent dust mite allergy:
- Wash all of your bed linens, pillowcases, curtains, children's soft toys, pillows, and pillow covers in hot water at least once a week.
- The ideal is to have fewer household things that are difficult to clean. Rugs and woolen blankets are two examples. Instead of carpet, use a robust vinyl floor mat. Blankets can be covered in a synthetic fabric that is simple to clean.
- Always keep your home clean and dust-free in the areas where you spend a lot of time. Living room and bedroom, for instance.
- When brushing your teeth and making the bed, wear a decent mask.
- Use a moist towel to clean anything that can be cleaned. as in the furniture and floor of a home. Dust will not spread and will fly less in the air as a result.
- Some people utilize vacuums
Many individuals believe that allergic reactions are brought on by animal fur or feathers. This is a false impression. In essence, allergens are caused by dead cells secreted from the bodies of animals and birds, saliva, and dried urine particles.
If you have allergic rhinitis, you should stay away from pets. The suggestions below can be used if that is not an option:
Pets should ideally be kept outside the house. Keep them in a separate room at home and avoid using carpets if raising them outside is not an option.
- Pets must not be allowed in the bedroom.
- At least once every two weeks, give the pet a bath.
- Pet dogs should often be taken outside and their skin should be combed and brushed.
- Regularly wash pet bedding, soft cushions, and accessories.
If you don't own pets but are visiting friends or family who do and they have pets, take an antihistamine one hour before going inside.
Pollen Molecule or pollen
At various periods of the year, different kinds of plants are pollinated. Accordingly, the type of pollen you are allergic to will determine what time of year you are more likely to get allergic rhinitis. The majority of people often have allergic rhinitis throughout the spring and summer, when the amount of pollen particles in the air increases.
The following advice is useful for avoiding allergic rhinitis brought on by pollen:
When the seasons change, especially in the summer and spring, spend as much time indoors as you can.
- Early in the morning and before sunset, shut the windows and doors to the house. The amount of pollen in the air is at its peak during this time.
- Avoid leaving the house unless absolutely essential if the pollen count rises. If you must go out by yourself, take a bath once you get back home. Your outdoor clothing should be washed.
- Dry your things indoors if you can. But you must take care to prevent fungus from developing inside the home.
- Keep off the grassy regions.
Fungus or mold on the wall
Such allergies may be more common in a warm, muggy atmosphere. To avoid this, adhere to the advice below:
- Maintain good light and air circulation in the house in addition to maintaining a dry environment.
- Fix any wet and humid interior spaces.
- While cooking and taking a bath, open windows. To prevent the steam from spreading around the house, keep the doors to the kitchen and bathroom closed. Additionally, utilize an exhaust fan to remove the steam from the home.
- Do not dry wet clothing inside. Avoid keeping too many items tightly packed in one area of the closet or storing them in moist areas.
- Remove any trees that are inside the home.
Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis
To determine whether allergic rhinitis is present or not, the doctor will ask the patient a number of questions. For instance-
- if the symptoms were brought on by a particular allergenic substance or not.
- whether the symptoms happen at a particular location or time.
- Does anyone in the family experience these issues?
The doctor can also examine the nose for "polyps" in addition to these other things. Many people refer to polyps as "nasal growths." Nasal polyps can develop as a result of allergic rhinitis because it irritates the nose.
It should be noted that symptoms like sneezing, runny nose, and cold are virtually certainly brought on by an allergic reaction if the patient's symptoms are eased by the use of antihistamines. However, the doctor might suggest some specialized allergy testing if the exact cause of allergic rhinitis cannot be determined.
Complications of allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis can lead to a few issues. Runny and stuffy noses might contribute to other issues. For instance -
- Sleep problems or insomnia
- Drowsiness even during the day
- Being irritable
- Having trouble concentrating on work
It should be mentioned that if a patient has both asthma and allergic rhinitis, the asthma symptoms could get worse.
Complications from allergic rhinitis might include nasal irritation. For instance -
- nose growths
- the infection of the ear